Curve Fitting using Python

 

OBJECTIVE – To write a program to perform curve fitting.

 

Curve Fitting is the process of constructing a curve or mathematical functions, which possess the closest proximity to the real series of data. By curve fitting, we can mathematically construct the functional relationship between the observed dataset and parameter values, etc. It is highly effective in the mathematical modelling of some natural processes.

  1. Popt – It is the optimum value of the polynomial coefficients.

         Pcov -  It is the covariance of the optimum value.It is a 2d array.

 

  1. array(temperature) – It passes the temperature value to the function.
  2. *in*popt- Instead of giving values for a,b,c we can pass the popt which contains the values of a,b and c,’*’ is used for referring that opt contains the values of a,b and c.

     4.Program to perform curve fit of linear and cubic for the given data:

Explanation-

  • Two functions are defined for the linear and cubic polynomial and the respective equations are returned.
  • Using another function the file which contains the data is used.
  • ‘for’ loop is used for opening and reading the file. The file is split with a comma.
  • Empty arrays are created for Cp and temperature.
  • Using ‘append’ command the values of the Cp and the temperature from the file are stored in the respective arrays.
  • Then print the temperature and the Cp values.
  • Using the curve fit option. The two were created for both the linear and cubic function.
  • Plot the temperature with the original Cp,fit Cp for linear and cubic function.
  • The plot will show how the linear and cubic function fits the original data.
import numpy as np 
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt 
from scipy.optimize import curve_fit

#defining the linear function
def lin_fun(t,a,b):
		return a*t + b

#defining the cubic function 
def cub_fun(t,a,b,c,d):
	return a*pow(t,3)+b*pow(t,2)+c*t+d

#obtaining data from the file and storing in arrays
def file():
	temp =[]
	Cp = []
	for line in open('data', 'r'):
		values = line.split(',')
		temp.append(float(values[0]))
		Cp.append(float(values[1]))

		return [temp, Cp]


#Fitting the curve
temp,Cp = file()
popt, pcov = curve_fit(lin_fun, temp, Cp)
lin_Cp = lin_fun(np.array(temp), *popt)

popt, pcov = curve_fit(cub_fun, temp, Cp)
cub_Cp = cub_fun(np.array(temp), *popt)

#plotting
plt.figure()
plt.plot(temp,Cp ,'r',linewidth = 3)
plt.plot(temp,lin_Cp,'b',linewidth = 3)
plt.legend(['Actual data','Linear fit data'])
plt.savefig('lin.png')

plt.figure()
plt.plot(temp,Cp,'r',linewidth =3)
plt.plot(temp,cub_Cp,'b',linewidth = 3)
plt.legend(['Actual data','Cubic fit data'])
plt.savefig('cub.png')

OUTPUT-

The graph clearly shows that cubic polynomial fits perfect with the data than the linear polynomial. So, increasing the order of the polynomial will result in a perfect fit.


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PROCEDURE –

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