## Single Cylinder Spark Plug Engine Calibration at 3600 rpm for Higher Load Applications And Lower NOx And Other Emmisions using GT-Power

Objective:- (1) Determine the engine parameters running at 1800 rpm and record the same.

(2) Further increase the power output obtained at 3600 rpm by 10%.

Model:-  The GT model Of the 1-cylinder engine is shown below:-

Observations (@1800rpm):-

•  Air Flow Rate = 24.645 kg/hr.
• BMP (Brake mean effective pressure) = 9.45 bar.
• BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) = 239.167 g/kw-h

In-cylinder pressure is the pressure given at any crank angle in the cylinder shown below:-

Fig 1:- In-Cylinder Pressure @1800 rpm

Fig 2 :- Air flow rate @ 1800 rpm

Fig 3:- BMEP @ 1800 rpm

Fig 4:- BSFC @ 1800 rpm

Observation @ 3600 rpm:-

Initial Parameters @ 3600 rpm:-

• Inlet conditions:-  Pressure (absolute)   = 1 bar

temperature             = 300 k

Composition             =  air

• Injection System :- Injection delivery rate = 6 g/s

Fuel ratio specification = Air-fuel-ratio.

Fuel ratio                    = 14.5

• Cylinder Geometry :-

• Case setup:- Engine speed = 3600 rpm.

• Results :- Brake Power = 16.7 KW

IMEP            = 12.85 bar

Air flow rate  = 58.6 kg/hr

BSFC            = 241.8 g/KW-hr

Volumetric effeciency = 93.6 %

Fig :-  Engine Performance Result

Fig :- Emmision Results.

CALIBRATION PARAMETERS @3600 RPM

In order to increase the power of the engine by 10% that is = 18.5 KW (approx.) following calibration has been done :-

1. Turbocharger :- For more power, better combustion is needed which means more air is required. Therfore, Turbocharger is used to increase the inlet air pressure.
2. Air-fuel mixture :-  If the  air-fuel mixture is rich then the fuel will burn less and moreover the Hydrocarbon(HC) emmision will be on higher side. And if the mixture is lean, then more power but NOx emission will be on higher side.
3. Engine Downsizing :-  If the power output is increased by downsizing the engine, then the overall vehicle packaging will be less complicated and also will decrease the manufacturing cost.
4. Compression Ratio :- The Compression ratio in gasoline engine(SI) must be kept lower atleast below 12.1 ratio, in order to prevent knocking.

• Turbocharging:- Pressure  =  2.6 bar , Temperature  = 300K  , Composition = air

• Air-fuel mixture:- Different values of air-fuel mixture is considered to understand the  behaviour of engine performance and emmisions at different cases i.e.,  (12.1),  (13:1),  (14:1), (14.4:1), (14.5:1), (14.6:1), (15:1).

• Engine downsizing :-  While calibration, the engine geometry has been downsized to decrease the Brake specific fuel consumption and to improve the vehicle packaging complexity.

• Compression Ratio :- The compression ratio is decreased from 9.5 to 9 to decrease the chances of knocking.

Results @3600 rpm (calibrated):-

1. Engine Performance :-

• The results shows that at stoichiometric air_fuel ratio (14.5 : 1) [column 5], the power obtained is  8.5 KW (10% more) than the previous one.
• Moreover, the BSFC = 210.1 g/KW-h which is much lesser than the one obtained before calibration i.e.,(241.8 g/KW-h).
• The volumetric effeciency at stoichiometric ratio = 226.7% (due to turbocharging).
• The power output decreases after stoichiometric ratio beacause the air-fuel mixture gets richer thus both combustion effeciency as well as  volumetric effeciency decreases

2.  Emmisions:-

From the emmision results it is clear that only at Stoichiometric ratio (14.5 : 1), the emmisions are at par with the engine performance results.

1. Power = 18.5 KW
2. NOX (ppm) =108.5 ppm which is lesser before calibration which is at 180 ppm.
3. HC (ppm)0.17 ppm.
4. CO (ppm) = 544.25 ppm which is slightly more than before calibration 514.74 ppm.

Conclusion:-  So, from the above observations we can conclude that the calibration at 3600 rpm has produced significant impact in terms of performance and emmision making the engine much more suitable for practical applications.

### Meshing of an automotive hood for structural analysis Ankit Chakrabarty · 2019-12-27 04:07:31

Title:- Geometry cleanup and meshing of an automotive hood for structural analysis   Objective:  Perform geometry cleanup of automotive hood (both inner and outer panel). Perform mid-surface extraction of both the panels and Hem both the surfaces . Perf Read more

### Solving A Quasi-1 Dimensional Supersonic Incompressible Isentropic Nozzle Flow Using Maccormack Explict Method In MATLAB Ankit Chakrabarty · 2019-10-14 08:26:31

Abstract: This project presents the Modelling of the  behaviour of  fluid and its properties when it passes through a convergent-divergent nozzle using a Finite Difference Method. However, to simplify the understanding of the dynamics of the flow in the nozz Read more

### Case Study: Thermodynamic Performance Analysis Of a Twin-scroll Turbocharger vs Single-Scroll Turbocharger Using GT-Power. Ankit Chakrabarty · 2019-09-22 18:00:53

Turbocharger: Literature Review: A turbocharger is mechanical rotating device which forcebly induces air at high pressure into the internal combustion engine, in turn increases the power and effeciency (thermal and volumetric effeciency) of the engine. A turb Read more

### Effect Of Spectral Radius And Diagonal Magnification In The Convergence Rate Of An Iterative Solver For A Linear System Using MATLAB. Ankit Chakrabarty · 2019-09-20 17:47:52

(A) Problem defination:- Solve the following Linear equation using Gauss-Jacobi, Gauss-Seidal and SOR iterative method and understand the following parameters:- Spectral radius and the impact of spectral radius on the convergence of the solution. Effect of d Read more

### CASE STUDY:- A Thermodynamic Analysis Of A Tractor EngineFor Use In India With Given Engine Performance Targets. Ankit Chakrabarty · 2019-09-09 06:55:40

CASE STUDY:-  A Thermodynamic Analysis Of A Tractor Engine For Use In India With Given Engine Performance Targets. A Brief Literature Review: A tractor is an engineered vehicle specifically designed to deliver Power and traction/tractive effort to haul heavy equi Read more

### Solving 2-D 2nd Order Linear Transient &Steady  Heat Conduction Equation Using Both Explicit And Implicit Numerical Schemes In MATLAB. Ankit Chakrabarty · 2019-09-06 05:15:36

Solving 2-D 2nd Order Linear Transient &Steady  Heat Conduction Equation Using Both Explicit And Implicit Numerical Schemes In MATLAB.   Explicit Scheme : We say that a scheme is explit when the information at time level "n+1" depends on previous time Read more

### CASE STUDY: Effect of Fuel Burn Rates on Engine Performance Of A 6-Cyl-Turbocharged-DI Engine Using A Non-predictive Combustion model (DI WIEBE) Ankit Chakrabarty · 2019-08-23 20:03:11

CASE STUDY: Effect of Burn Rate on engine performance Of A 6-Cyl-Turbocharged-DI Engine Using A Non-predictive Combustion model (DI WIEBE) Abstract: Analytical functions approximating the burn rate in internal combustion engines are useful and cost-effective to Read more

### Solving 1-D Linear Convection Using First-Order Backward Difference And Forward Difference Numerical Schemes Using MATLAB Ankit Chakrabarty · 2019-08-12 10:58:54

Solving 1-D Linear Convection Using First-Order Backward Difference And Forward Difference method Using MATLAB LITERATURE REVIEW: WHAT IS CONVECTION? Convection is the sum of bulk transport of the  fluid  and brownian/ osmotic dispersion of fluid constituen Read more

### Computation Of 4th order Approximation For 2nd Order Derivative function Using Taylor Table In MATLAB Ankit Chakrabarty · 2019-08-07 17:51:14

Deriving the 4th order approximation for 2nd order derivative of a function using Taylor table for centered, skewed right-sided stencil and skewed left_sided stencil and compare the error results for the same using MATLAB.   Given function, f(x)    =& Read more